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 Post subject: The Dipavamsa
 Post Posted: Sat Nov 05, 2005 3:51 pm 
The Dipavamsa

By Venarable Pandit AHUNGALLE WIMALAKITTI MAHATHERO / 1939
Principal Sugatasasanodaya Pirivena
Ammbarukkliaramaya," Welitota, Balapitiya


The Dipavamsa is the oldest of the Pali Chronicles extant in Ceylon ; its author or authors are unknown as also the date of its composition. It seems safe to assume that its compilation extended over a fairly long period of time and that it was the result of collaboration from more than one quarter. It relied for its authoritativeness on the Sinhalese records, faithfully kept by the dwellers of the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura, and claimed to be no more than a translation into Pali of portions of those apparently very varied documents.

Pali had by this time superseded Sinhalese as the language of the new culture which arose with the spread of Buddhism, and scholars, not only of Ceylon but also of other Buddhist lands, ware evidently interested in the traditional lore of the Island. It was necessary, therefore, that information should be ,tvailable in a language familiar to a very wide circle of investigators. The Dipavamsa was the result of an attempt to meet such a demand.

The Sinhalese were yet novices in the handling of Pali idiom and metre. The language and style of the Dipavamsa bear evidence of a stage of experimentation. Within a very short time, however, the alumni of the Maliavihara had mastered Pali and were anxious that no room should be left for reflection to be cast on the excellence of Sinhalese scholarship. Thus was produced the Mahavamsa, meticulous care being taken to avoid the faults of diction, of prolixity as well as of undue conciseness, and any other deficiencies from which the Dipavamsa suffered. Some have advanced the theory that the two Chronicles but such a hypothesis]
[were the works of rival seats of learning, can scarcely be maintained. Yet it is true that both compilations dealt with the same period of Ceylon history and that both drew their materials from common sources.

The compilation of tl-ie idahavttinsa seems to have eclipsed the Dipavamsa almost completely. It would appear, however, that once or twice attempts were made to revive its glory, though ithout success. The Mahavamsa became the authoritative chronicle of royalty as well as of the Sangha and, when it was considered necessary to bring the account up I o
date, it was to the Mahavanlsa that supplementary chapters were added from time to time. But the older Chronicle was riot allowed to fall into oblivio n ; it, too, was assiduously studied arid zealously guarded as a valued heritage; copies of it are to be found in the more representative monastic libraries to this day.

No effort seems to have been made in the past to continue the record contained in the Dipavains from where its original compiler(s) concluded-the reign of Mahasena. The gap thus left was very wide indeed. The Rev. Pandita AI-iungalle Wimalakitti Thera has now come forward to bridge it. The task he has undertaken is gigantic and would have unnerved
another of less heroic mould than he. He has laboured with infinite patience and untiring energy and the present volume contains the results of his industry and ability. I would not here attempt to appraise its value either as history or as literature; that 1 would leave to others better qualified.

[There are those who consider the resuscitation of ancient chronicles a worthless task. Other times, other works, they would say and add thah nowhere have methods of approach changed so completely as in the sphere of historical stud:es. 1 am not in entire agreement with them ; to me the works of a long-forgotten past have more than a sentimental value
when they are -proposed to he made the bases for modern compilations. Thus would the dry bones of a remote age have new life given to them both for our instruction and our edification. I wholeheartedly welcome all such efforts as would quicken interest in our past and provide inspiration for the present.

I happen to know that, the Rev Wimalakitti has had to meet with disappointment from mlriy quarters where he had the right to expect encouragement and support. His enterprise is all the more commendable, therefore, that he has refused defeat and persevered with courage and determination. May he reap a rich reward.

[G. P. VIALALASEKER-k.]

INTRODUCTION


This Noble Island visited by the Lord Buddha and blessed with illiinitable wealth and glory was known as Lanka, Sihala and Tambapanni. The naine Lanka is very old.

Before the arrival of Vijaya, the father of the Sinhalese royal dynasty, Lankapura was a very prosperous city. The day of Vijaya's landing in Ceylon coincided with the festive occasion of the marriage of a princess from Lankapura to the lord of the city of Sirisavastu. With the aid of Kuveiii, Vijaya proceeded to Sirisavastu with his followers, slew the whole host of its cit.izens and took possession , of the kingdom.

[From these and other facts we ean infer that the name Lanka was applied to this country before the arrival of Vijaya.]

[Sinhabahu the ruler of Sinhapura in Lata was known as Sitihala, because of the fact that he captured a lion. His children and their descendents as well as the land they lived in came to be known by the name Sinhala.]

[The term Tambapanni came into use after the advent of Vijaya. The prince and his followers landed from their ship and rested on the sea,-shore. As the pgims of their hands appeared to be of @ copper colour by the touch of the sand on the beach, the land @tme to be known as TLmbapanni. At this spot Vij@tya built a city. This locality is known as
Tammanna even at the present day.]

[Both the terms Sibala and Tamb,,tpanni came into existence after the arrival of Vijaya. Nevertheless the name Lanka is generally known. After the conquest of Ceylon by Vijaya the culture common to the people of India spread rapidly among the Ceylonese and thereby
the Sinhalese people advanced by gradual steps,]

[This island thrice visited and blessed by the Lord Buddha is enriched by his personal and
associated relies to the same extent. as His -native land. During the reign of King
Devanampiyfi Tissa in 237 B.E,, the Arahat Mahiiida, son of the Great Emperor Dharmasoka,
at the request of Arahat Moggalipubta Tissa who was entreated by the king of Gods,
established Buddhism in Ceylon.]

[Mahiiida the spiritual teacher of Lanka propagated the 1)hamma in the Island. He caused
the Sinhalese Commentaries to be written. As t result of these activities the literature and
scientifie knowledge. spread throughout the land.]

[In the Reign of Wattagamini Abhaya five hundred holy monks assembled at the Aloka
Vihara in the Matale District, observing the decay of the Religion in the future, and reduced
into writing the Texts and Commentaries that were handed down orally among the monks.
The world benefited immensely by this great undertaking.]

[Later, during the reign of Vabanama, the famous commentator Buddhagosha, at the
instance of his teacher Revata, arrived in Ceylon and residing at the Ma@ia Vihara in the
sacred city of Anuradhapura, translated id.,0 Pali the Commentaries that were in Siiiho,Iese.]

[For the credit of a country or a people that progressed gradually there must exist a
continual history. Ceylon and the Sinhilese Nation possess for themselves an unrivalled
history in the world. It is said by the ancients that what .,(jmprises of the unbroken tradition
of a people embodying the fourfold outlook in life-Darma, Artha, Kama and M(,,kshais
called history. It is undisputedly acknowledged by the scholars both oriental and accidental
that the earliest and foremost liistorical work of Ceylon is the Dipavamsa.]

[According to the scholastic definition, it is a Dipa (an island) which is bounded by water.
A Wansa (a race) is that which propalgates itself by producing men. By the term Dipavamsa
the racial continuity of the island as well as the Chronicle that records it, is indicated.]

[In the Dipavarnsa, the story of the visits of Lord Buddha, the establishment of Buddhism
in the Island, the succession of Kings and Dynasties, and the temporal and spiritual
activities of the rulers and their ministers, are systematically recorded. The Chronicle is
written in elegant Pali verse. The first part contains the historical narrative from the story of
the visits of Lord Buddha up to the reign of Mahasena.]

[The Book runs into twenty-two chaptersknown as Bhanavaras, each consisting of 25,0
granthas or stanzas. Although each chapter is]

[vii]

[designated a Bhanavara, the requi site number of stanza@s and syllables for a chapter is not
uniform. Hence we have to conclude that the author has applied the general scriptural term
of Bhanavara to the chapters,]

[As it is considered that the poem which presents a historical narrative is necessarily a "great
poem." we cannot but regard the Dipavamsa as a '@great poem." We have no clue
whatsoever as to the date and authorship of this monumental work. Yet by a critical
examination of the poem we can come to tl,ie conclusion that it has been written by a
scholar who was contemporary to the king Mahasena. The great commentary of the Vinaya
known as Samantapasadika written by the Thera Buddhaghosha bears ,unmistakable
evidence as to the age of this historical work. Therein we come across certain illustrations
quoted from the Dipavamsa. This work written in perfect Pali verse narrating the historical
tradition of Buddhism and the Sinhalese kingdom during a period of 845 years stood as an
example to later compositions of a similar character.]

[THE. MONASTIC ORDER:]

[The Monastic Order established by the Great Arahat Mahinda in the reign of king
Devanampiya Tissa, 236 B. E., and which prospered steadily through the support of kings
and nobles continned to exist for a space of 1,300 years dividing itself into various schisms.
During the later times, owing to the incessant wars between the Tamils and the Sinhalese,
Buddhism deteriorated to such an extent that the requisite number of Bhikkhus qualified to
perform the ecclesiastical rites were found scarce.]

[Vijaya Bahu I, who united Lanka under one flag and became King in 1609 B. E., was
disappointed at the scarcity of qualified Bhikkhus to perform the ecclesiastical duties. He
dispatched, envoys to the King of Arimaddana in Ramanna country to bring qualified
monks from there and resuscitated the monastic order by conferring the ordination on
young men of noble birth,,]

[After the time of king VI'Jaya Bahu until the early years of the reign of Parakrama Bahu I,
the country was continually subjected to numerous wars and evil strifes. During this period
the monks degraded to a very low ebb and spoiled the religion by acting contrary to the
noble toadhing, The great monarch observing the]

[viii]

[irreparable harm done by them disrobed and expelled the unclisciplined monks. He
conducted the ordination ceremony annually and reformed the,Holy Order. This reformation
continued to exist for a space of 250 years till the reign of Parakrama Bahii VI.]

[As a result of ' the rapid progress of Portuguese power in the maritime provinces since the
accession of Don John Dharmapala and of the mgsslere of Buddhist monks by the apostate
Rajasinha I, who embraced Shaivaism, King Wimaladharmasuriya, on coming to the throne,
met with the difficulty of procuring a single Bhikkliu who had received the Ordination. He
sent an embassy to the King of Rakkhanga alias Araman,,i, brought down some monks
including the Thera Nandicakka and re-established the Monastic Order in Ceyl on by
conducting an Ordinabion in the year 2140 B. E,]
[Subsequently the performance of the Ordination Ceremony and other ecclesiastical duties
fall into abeyance owing to the frequent wars during the long reign of Rajusinha II, and it
was found impossible to come across a qualified monk in Ceylon. The devout King
Witnaladharmasuriya II, who was endowed with a noble character entirely different from
that of his father, dispatched a party of Sinhalese envoys equipped with valuable gifts to the
Ramannadesa on board a Dutch ship, in 1697 A. C., and brought down 33 monks headed by
the Elder Santana Thera.]

[He conducted an Ordination Ceremony inside an aquatic tower built on the river
Mahaveliganga at the ford of (,Tetambe, administered the Ordination to 33 monks, admitted
120 laymen to the Holy Order, and revived the Monastic Order in Lanka.]

[Subsequently King Sri Vijaya Raiasinha sent a band of Sinhalese envoys to Pegu in the year
1741 A. 0., with orders to bring fully ordained Bhikklius. As the vessel in which they
travelled met with ship-wreck during the course of their journey, another party was
dispatched to Siam on board a Dutch sailing vessel in the year 1747. As the king had
deceased before the return of the c ' nvoys with the Bhikkhus from Siam, the disappointed
Siamese monks returned home without paying a visit to the capital Srivardhanapura.]

[Later when Kirti Sri Rajasinha ascended the throne, he sent an embassy to the King of
Siam, got down a party of Siamese monkoundertheElderUpaliThera,ordainedtheVen.
Saranankara]

[ix]

[Samanera and others and established the Siamese sect in Coylon.]

[During the reign of King Rajasinli,,t the Ven. Welitota Nanavimala Tissa, embarked for
Amarapui.a in Burma, obtained the Ordination from there and on his return to Ceylori in
2340 B. E., established the Amarapura sect in this country.]

[Not long afterwards the Ven. Saranankara of Arnbagahawatta sailed to the city of
Ratanapunna in Burma in 2405 B. E., obtained his Ordination there and established the
Bamatina Sect in Ceylon.]

[It would be one of the greatest services to Buddhism if the devout Buddhists make a
determined endeavour to unite these three sects as were done by the Buddhist monarchs
from time to time in the days of yore.]

[This ORDER OF NUNS:]

[During the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa, 236 B. E., the Order of Nuns was' established
in Ceylon by the Holy Nun Sanghamitta, daughter of the Great Emperor Dharmasoka.
Princess Anula the consort of Maha Naga brother of King Devanampiya Tissa became such
a devoted follower of Buddhism that she expressed her desire to be a Nun giving up the
householder's life. The imonarch communicated the appeal to the Arahat Mahinda. As the
monks were unauthorized to admit ladies to the monastic life he decided to get down his
sister Sangamitta and informed the king about it. The monarch, pleased with tl-ie idea of
establishing the Order of Nuns, dispatched envoys to the court of Dharmasoka. Emperor
Asoka immediately sent a party of eleven Nuns headed by Sanghamitta. The great Nun
admitted to the Holy Orders 500 youn. ladies including the Princess Anula as well as 500
women of the Royal household and thereby established the Order of Nuns in Coylon.]

[The Chronicles bear undoubted evidence as to the continual existence of the Order of Nuns
for a long space of 1282 years until the reign of Mahinda iii., who ascended the throne in
1519 B. E. We have no evidence as to the existence of the Order of Nuns after this date.
Mahinda III, was on the throne for 16 years. It is mentioned that he built an abode for the
Nuns named Mahamalla and dedicated it to the Senior Nuns who had received consecration
from the Therawansa. This is the last available reference to the]

[X]

[Order of Nuns in -Ceylon. Therefore we can be sure that the monastic order for worrien
was still in existence in the reign of Mabinda III. This king was succeeded by big son Sena
IV. His reign was distinguished by numerous wars. In spite of it we find no possible cause
for the total extinction of the Order of Nuns. Sena TV died at the end of a reign of 10 years
and his brother Mahinda TV succeeded to the throne at Anuradhapura. He could not
effectually control the kin dom which was over-run by the 9]
[people of various nationalities brought down from different countries by his fatt,.er's
General, Sena. As he was found to be a ruler of a gentle disposition, the people refused to
pay him taxes. Unable to pay the mercenaries owing to the loss of revenue, he fled from the
capital to Ruhuna and lived at the villa-je of Citta Pabbata which he converted into a place
of defence. Subsequently he built the city of Kapuga,,1 Nuwara and made his residence
there, At this time the Kerala, Karnata and Sinhala rebels held their sway over the
remaining territory. The. land was entirely impoverished. A horse-merchant who visited the
Island at this period reported the troubled state of the country to tl-ie ruler @f the Chola
Kingdom and the Cholian hordes invaded the country, Soon after their landing they were
able to capture the crown and insignia with the queen and the royal treasures which they
sent hurne to their King. They demolished the sacred shrines and Buddhist Viharas and
plundered all their essential wealth. The ruthless destruction of Buddhism during the
Cholian invasion is amply recorded in history. It is possible that the Order of Nuns diseared
at this disastrous period Any vestiges of the Order of app]
[Nuns that remained during the reign of Mahinda, we presume, were finally lost by the
abdication of monastic life by the Nuns in fear of the Cholian menace.]

[THE TOOTH RELIC:]

[The Great Tathagata, after an active life of 45 years, ent@ered the Parinirvana at the age of
80, at the Sala grove of the Mallas in the city of Kusinara. Prior to the distribution of relies,
a certain Arahat known as Khema by name, removed one of the Sacred Tooth Relies from
the left-hand side of His, jaw, during the course of the cremation. He took it to the country
of Kalinga and after converting Danta, the King of Dantapura, to Buddhism handed it over
to the monarch who scrupulously guarded it as his]

[xi]

[own life. His son Sunanda succeeded him. In course of time when King Guhasiva became
the custodian of the Tooth Relic through linear succession, the King of Pandya heard of it
from the Tirthakas and took possession of it by force. He entrusted to the Tirthakas to
destroy the Holy Relic which he had captured. They tried their best to put an end to this
object of great reverence, but met with failure. Subsequently the King Gubasiva became so
delighted on witnessing the miracles performed by the Tooth Relic, that he returned the
Relic to its original owner Guhasiva.]

[In order to protect the Tooth Relic from the hands of hostile kings he requested his
daughter Hemamala and her husband Sudotta, the Prince of Dantapura, to take it. away to
King Mahasena of Ceylon. Accompanied by theToothRelic they embarked from the port of
Tamra,lipti and landed in Ceylon. On their arrival they found that Alahasona had already
died and his son Kit, Siri Mevan was reigning. The couple journeyed with the Relic
toanuradhapura and arriving at the Maha Vihara approached the king through the
mediation of the monks. They related the full story of their mission,and entrusted the Tooth
Relic to the ruler. The monarch highly gratified by this good fortune received the Relic in a
valuable cryst@l casket and deposited it in the hall of Dhammacakka built bydevanampiya
Tissa. From that moment this hall received the name of 'Dathadhatughara. In order to
facilitate all the citizens to pay respects to the Tooth Relic, the king took it in great
procession to the Abhayagiri Vihara, held festivities and offerings there, and returned with
it to the Hall of the Tooth. The Eialada festivities were conducted by the monarch Kit Siri
Mevan defraying an expenditure of nine lacs of gold coins. It was the first occasion that the
Dalada Perahera was ever held in Ceylon. He ordered that the festival of the Tooth Relic
should be conducted annually, Since that time the devout kings of Ceylon continued to
observe the festival of the Tooth Relic with the accompaniment of a Perahera.]

[When the capital of the kings changed from time to time owing to political and other
reasons, the abode of the Tooth Relic also had to be shifted simultaneously. The Sacred
Tooth remained at Anuradhapura for a space of more than 700 years until King -'jijaya Bahu
I, in 1609 B. E, built the city of Polonnaruwa and removed it thither. When his. son
Wickrama]

[Bahu I began to appropriate the wealth of the temples, the Bhikkhus removed the Tooth
Relic to Ruhuna. Manabharana, the ruler of Ruhun,,i and contemporary of Gaja Bahu,
brought back the Tooth Relic to Polonnaruwa when he captured the city. As soon as
Parakrama Bahu I, conquered the capital of Rajarata,, 'LVIanabharana carried away the
Tooth Relic with him. At the death of Manabharana, his mother Sugala took possession of
the sacred Relic. By the order of Parakrania Bahu I, his Generals waged war against Sugala
and brought the Tooth Relic back to Polonnaruwa. The great monarch built a magnificent
palace for the I-loly Tooth in the heart of his capital and held great festivities in its honour.]

[When Magha the invader from South India ravaged the city of Polonnaruwa, Vacissara and
other Theras concealed the Tooth Relic on the mountain-side of Kotmale. Vanni Vijaya Bahu,
who built the new city of Dambadeniya and transferred the Tooth Relic to his capital,
constructed a grand palace for the Tooth on the rock fortress of Beligala and securely placed
it there in -reat ceremony. His son Parakrama Bahu II, who succeeded him as ruler at
Dambadeniya, built the Temple of the Tooth called Vijayasundararama, by the side of his
royal palace and deposited tl-ie Tooth Relic there. His son Vijaya Bahu IV, after freeing the
country from the thorns of hostile armies, reoccupied the city of Polonnaruwa and brought
the Tooth Relic back to its original home. He was succeeded by his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu
V, who made Yapawu or Subha Pabbata his capital. He removed the Sacred Tooth to
Yapahuwa and conducted daily festivals in its honour.]

[After his reign a Draviclian, General, Aryaeakravarti, descended on the city of Subha
Pabbata accompanied by his Tamil hordes. I-Ie captured the Tooth Relic, and presented it to
his lord Kalasekhara, King of Pandya. Parakraina Bahu III, who came to the throne
immediately after this period, proceeded to the court of Kulasekhara and recovered the
Sacred Relic by peaceful persuasion. Returning with the Great Relic he deposited it in the
Temple of the Tooth at Polonnaruwa where he conducted festivities. He was succeeded by
Parakrama Bahu IV of Kurunegala. This monarch brought the Tooth Relic to his Capital,
built a magnificent palace as its repository and conducted grand festivities and daily
oiterings.]

[xiii]

[He composed in Sinhaleqe a treatise called Dh.,itha Dhatu Caritta (Dalada Sirita) which
deals with the history of the Tooth Relic.]

[During later years Bhuvaneka Bahu V who made Gampola or Gan,casiripura his capital
removed the Tooth Relic thither and conducted fe@tivals in its honour. As the latter part of
his reign was connected with Jayavardhanipura (Kotte) the Tooth Relic was transferred from
Gampola to the new capital. Parakrama Bahu VI of Kothe built a magnificent building for
the Tooth Relic in the vicinity of the royal palace and repc)sited the Tooth Relic there in
great ceremony.]

[In the reign of Dharmapala, when the Christian religion introduced by the Portuguese was
gaining influence, the monks surreptitiously removed the Tooth Relic to Delgamu Vibara in
thi) province of Sabaragamuva. Wimal,@i Dharma Surya who gave up Christianity and
became king of Sirivardhanapura removed the sacred Relic to his Capital.' He built a
two-storied mansion for the Tooth Relic near the royal palace and conducted offerings to the
great relic. From the day that Ceylon was ceded to king George III in 2358 B. B., the Tooth
Relic remained under the custody of the British Government. In the year 2396 B. E. the
Government transferred the custodianship of the Tooth Relic into the hands of the High
Priests of Asgiriya and Malwatta and to the Diyawadana Nilame.]

[THE HERETIC-KL DOCTRINES:]

[These doctrines are teachings absolutely contrary to the Buddha Dhamma. A heresy which
originated in India wfis introduced into Ceylon in the days of king Vohara Tissa who
ascended the throne in the year 757 B. E. (' ertain sinful monks in this country became its
adherents. The monks of the Abhayagiri Vihara endeavoured to propa ,gate this doctrine 1
in Ceylon in the guise of a Buddhist teaching. The king employed a learned minister named
Kapila well versed in the Tripitaka to examine the heretical teachings, Having discovered
that their teaching was a false doctrine the monarch collected all the books dealing with it
and consigned them to a fire, punishing all the monks who had accepted it. Similar heretical
teachings that arose in Ceylon during later periods passed under the same name. The
heresies were revived by the monks of the Abhayagiri Vihara during the reign of
Gothabbaya]

[xiv]

[otherwise known as Megavarna Abhaya. The ruler gathered sixty monks who followed the
heretical teaching, branded on them and banished them out of the country. These deported
m,.)nks came across a Cholian heretic in India named Sangamitra who became tne inveterate
enemy@ of the orthodox monks of the Maha Vihara. He came to Geylon, was successful in
winning the favour of the king and became the tutor to the two sons of the monarch. He
easily converted the younger prince Mahasena to his new doctrine. But the elder Jettha Tissa
was dissatisfied with his teacher. After the death of the king the prince Jettha Tissa ascended
the throne. S.,inghamitra realising that it was unsafe for him to remain in Ceylon durin@ his
reign, conferred with prince Maha Sena and fled to India with the intention of returning
when the latter succeeded to the throne.]

[Jettha Tissa was followed by his brother as king. Sangbamitra returned from India and
persuaded the new king to enact a law against the orthodox school prohibiting all citizens
to provide alms to the monks of the Maha Vlhara. He fixed a penalty of one thousand gold
coins as a fine for infringing this law. The monks of the Maha Vihara direly oppressed by
the absence of food fled to Ruhuna and the hill country. The Maha Vihara remained a
deserted place for nine years. Sanghamitra removed the enormous wealth of the Maba.
Vihara to the Abhayagiri fraternity. The wicked monk caused the Lowa Maha Paya and
many other beautiful palaces and religious edifices to be demolished. He made the ground
of the Maha -Vihara to be ploughed and converted into a field of corn. Owing to these
vicious deeds the people in grave resentment rose acrainst the king. The Minister
Meghavarna Abhaya burning with indignation at the ruthless distruction of the Maha
Vibara, collected an army and rebelled against the king. The monarch promised to rebuild
the Maha Vibara and made peace with the minister who begged the king to forgive him.]

[During this great revolt one of the consorts of the king had the haritical monk Sanghamitra
assassinated. The minister Solia, one of his faithful adherents was murdered by the citizens.
As a result of these events the king became a sober man, and the heretical doctrines
incidentally disappeared.]

[xv]

[Later, during the reign of Silakala, a young merchant who visited the city of Kasi (Benares)
in India brought back to Ceylon a religious work known as Dharma Dhatu which contained
heretical doctrines and presented it to the king. The monarch who was not capable of
distinguishing between heresy and orthodoxy was naturally ignorant of what, it contained.
He received it as a sacred book and deposited it in a special shrine by the side of the royal
palace. He paid it !devoted respects, and decreed his subjects to pay it homage. As a result
of the introduction of the Dharma Dhatu from India the heretical doctrines saw a revival
during the reign of Agra Bodhi I. At this period an erudite monk named Jotipala defeated
the heretics at a great controversy and protected the Buddhist religion.]

[In the days of Kumaradasa, King of Ceylon, there lived in the city of Southern Madura a
ruler Sri Harsha by name. At this time a clever but depraved monk visited the house of a
prostitute during the night, clad himself in a blue garb and returned to the Vihara after
day-break. His pupils observing this peculiar robe inquired of him whether his attire was
not improper. As numerous people had observed his extraordinary dress he stoutly
defended it and spoke highly in Its praise. His faithful subordinates who followed his
theory discarded the yellow robe and adopted the blue-coloured garb. This heretical leader
composed a philosopical work known as Nila-pata Darsaiia praising prostitutes, intoxicants
and the God of Love as the' only three precious gems in the triple world while despising all
other "gems" as nothing but mere clay.]

[This great heresy began to spread with much rapidity and the new philosophical treatise
reached the bands of the King Sri Harsha who went through it critically. Pretending an
approbation of the new doctrine he assembled the followers of the novel philosophy
together with their whole literature into a special hall built for the purpose and set them all
on fire. The lingering vestiges of this false doctrine had a recrudescence in Ceylon during
the, reign of Sena II. In recent times, since the advent of the Portuguese, various kinds of
religious teachings began to appear in this land, At the present day the island ofceylon is
indelibly contaminated with the poisonous stains of those bygone times.]

[xvi]

[THE SINHALESE ROYAL LINE:]

[The Sinhalese Royal Line that originated with King Vi5aya e,,Lme into existence in the first
year of the Buddhist Era. Vijaya was the eldest son of Sinha Babu king of the city built by
him in the heart of the forest in L,,tta. Prince Vijaya landed in Ceylon and conquered this
island on the very day on which Lord Buddha]
[was lying in bed iii preparation for his final passing away. Among]
[the noted and powerful monarchs of the Greater Dynasty,]
[Pandukabhaya Devanampiya Tissa, Dutthagamini Abhaya,]
[Wattagamini Abhaya and other great kings possessed unsullied fame and unsurpassed
glory. Similarly, out of the later sovereigns Buddhadasa, Vijaya Bahu I, Parakrama Babu 1,
Pandita Parakrama Babu II, Parakrama Bahu VI. Raja Sinha I, Wimala Dharma Suriya I and
others were renovvned and mighty monarchs. Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Sinba was the
last king of the Sinhalese Royal Line. After a long space of about 2300 years of Sinhalese
rule the Nayakkars of'South India came into possession of the Sinhalese kingdom with the
consent of certain chieftains of the Sinhalese Royal Court. They held their sway for a period
of about 74 years. Subsequently this island came under the British flag and is being now
ruled by the kings of England for more than a century. As the British Government stood for
Justice for all their policy has given satisfaction to everybody. His Majesty King George VI
is our present sovereign. May he live long in happiness and glory for the common good and
welfare of all the inhabitants of this land]

[ARRIVAL of THE PORTUGUESE:]

[The people of Portugal in the continent of Europe known as the Portuguese, after taking
possession of many countries in Europe conquarred certain portions of India. Their main
centre in India was the State of Goa. Francisco do Almcida, the Governor General of Goa
began to spread the Portuguese power in the east. His son Lourenco do Almeida was the
Portuguese Admiral. While chasing after the ships of the Moor men in an unexplored sea he
unexpechedly arrived at Galle harbour in 2049 B. E , the 19th year of the reign of Vira
Parakrama Babu. The @ Moors, who were traders at Galle at that time sent away the
Portuguese by artful pretext. During the short time the Portuguese -spent in Ceylon]

[xvii]

[they gathered as much information as possible concerning this island. On their departure
they left behind an engraving on a rock as a memorial of their visit to this country. By
reason of this visit of Lourenco de Almeida the Portuguese people learnt about the natural
features and the valuable resources of this countryThe Portuguese who brought many parts
of India under their sway made up their mind to take possession of Ceyloi). In the year 2061
B. E. when Dharma Parakrama Babu was on the throne Governor Lopo Soarez de Albergaria
arrived at Colombo with a squadron of seventeen ships carrying an army of 700 men, with
the intention of building a fortress at Colombo. Dharma Parakrama Bahu, the king of
Jayawardbanapura reluctantly gave them permission to erect a fortress as -his council of
ministers also advised him to remain friendly with the Portuguese. The Moors fearing a
danger to their. monopoly of 'trade owing to the presence of the Portuguese, lost no time in
setting the Sinhalese king against the Portuguese' Dharma Parakrama Bahu sent an army to
Colombo to oppose the Portuguese who easily repulsed the Sinhalese forces. After this
incident the Sinhalese and the Portuguese lived in peace for some time. Governor Albergaria
entrusted the fort of Colombo temporarily built by the Portuguese, to the charge of his
nephew Juan de Silva and left the Island. Captain Lopo de Brito arrived in Ceylon with men
and material to strengthen the fort of Colombo. The king despatched an army to resist him.
The Portuguese drove them away and strongly fortified the garrison. This was followed by
a treaty of peace between the two parties.]

[When the Portuguese arrived in Ceylon this island was disintegrated and the Sinhalese
Government was weak and powerless. At this time there were different principalities at
Gampola, Peradeniya, Devundara and other places. The Tamils were ruling in the North.
The Moors were mending power in the maritime provinces. The King of Kotte reigned as
overlord of Lanka. In spite of that there was no genuine concord among the petty rulers of
the provinces. The Portuguese power that be-an in small degrees increased in extent during
the reigns of Vijaya Babu VII, Bhuvaneka Bahu VII and Don Jolin Dharmapala. They took
possession of the maritime provinces and established centres of trade. They persecuted and
massacred the Sinhalese without number and plundered all their wealth. The Sitibalese who
felt grave indignation at these atrocities, gathered an army of 20, 000 men during the reion
of Vijaya Bahu VII, beseiged the Portuguese fort at Colombo and waged a severe war for
five years. Ultimately a Portuguese reinforcement from Cochin arrived in Colombo and
repulsed the Sinhalese army.]

[The Portuguese were Christians of the Roman Catholic Church. They endeavoured to
propagate their religion as much as they endeavoured to establish their political power. The
Roman Catholic Fathers who arrived in Ceylon along with the Sinhalese ambassador
Sellappu Aratchi who was sent to Lisbon.' as representative on the occasion of the crowning
of Prince Dharmapala, extensively converted the people of the maritime districts by
preaching Christianity. The results of this wide campaign are still to be seen throughout
these districts. Francis Xavier converted the inhabitants of the Maniiar District with
tremendous effort. Sankili, the ruler of @alfna attempted to prevent his people embracing
the new religion, but met with failure.]

[During the reign of Raja. Sinha of Sitawaka, who was renowned as a great warrior there
were frequent conflicts with the Portuguese. The valiant monarch tried his best to drive the
Portuguese out of Ceylon. As certain Sinhalese leaders favoured and assisted the
Portuguese, the kii)g's efforts were of no avail. Yet Raja Sinha reduced the Portuguese
power to a considerable extent. Out of the several encounters that took place between the
Sinhatese and the Portuguese, the Battle of Muljeriyawa was one of the most notable. Vast
numbers of Portuguese were killed during this fierce encounter.]

[Wimala Dharma Suriya I after he ascended the throne gave up his name D@n John along
with the Christian faith. After he embraced Buddhism he attempted to expel the Portuguese
from the island. General Don Lopes de Sousa landed with an army from Goa and started for
Kandy to give battle to the king. No sooner they reached the pass at Balana the king's forces
met them and annihilated the Portuguese areny including General Lopes de Sousa. After a
lapse of two years the Governor General of Goa despatched a large force under the Captain
General Don Jeronimo de Azevedo.]

[xix]

[He was able to conquer the Western Province, and after perpetrating numerous atrocities
he embarked upon a war with the king of Kandy. The Sinlialese forces overwhelmed the
Portuguese and drove them back to Colombo. The General Azevedo instigated a sinister
plot to assassinate the Sinhalese monarch. Afterwards, the Portuguese gave up the idea of
conquering the Kandyan kingdom and remained masters of the maritime provinces.

[THE ARRIVAL OF TIIE DUTCH:]

[While king Wimaladharmasurya was in hostility with the Portuguese, the Dutch Admiral
Joris van Spilbergen arrived in Ceylon with a squadron of seven ships and landed at
Batticaloa in the year 2146 B. E. Spain was at this tinie one of the most powerful states in
Europe. Holland and Portugal were under Spanish suzerainty. The Hollanders revolted
against the wicked rule of Spain and acquired their freedom. The Dutch were carrying on
trade for some time in friendliness with the Portuguese. But after a short while friction
arose. As goon as Admiral Spilbergen arrived in this island he learnt that the Sinhalese king
was in hostility with the Portuguese. The Dutch Admiral paid a visit to the Court of Kandy
where he had an audience with the king. He gave a solemn promise to the king that the
Hollanders would assist him to drive the Por ' buguese out of Ceylon and obtained
permission to build a fortress and to carry on trade freely with the natives. Spilbergen
remained in this island for about three ' months during which time he captured three
Portuguese ships and delivered tlieni over to the Sinlialese king.]

[In the following year Seebald de Weerb, a e,,tptian under Admiral Spilbergen, ,trrived at
Batticalot and paid a visit to the Kandyan Court where he was received with cordiality. But
the king, was dissatisfied witli him because he had set free four Portuguese vessels that he
captured and also had not paid due respects to the officers of the Kandyan Court. This led
to the murder of D,3 Weerb and his retinue of men]

[King Senai.atna ascended the. throne of Kandy in the year' 2147 B. E. During the first eight
years of his reign there was peace prevailing in the island. In the eighth year of his rule
Mareel do Bosehouwer arrived at Kandy as an ambassador,of the Dutch Government. Once
more the Hollanders promised to assist the king]

[xx]

[against the Portuguese and they were granted permission to erect a fortress at Kottiyar and
to carry on trade in the island without any hindrance. The king who was well pleased with
Do Bosehouwer, appointed him ambassador of the Dutch and adviser to himself, and in this
capacity he was stationed at Kandy.]

[The Portuguese who heard of these developments collected a large force and descended on
Kottiyar where they destroyed the Dutch fort and the garrison. The king who was enraged
by this attack sent an army to Kottiyar, killed a large number of the Portuguese and
captured the fort. This led to ,i great conflict between the Portuguese and the Sinhalese. The
king gathered an army of about 50,000 men. The Portuguese landed near' Jaffna with a large
force and had to be defeated by the Sinhalese. After the death of the queen of Karidy the
king's health was beginning to fail. The Portuguese who learned about the failing health of
the ruler, entered into a conspiracy with Herab Dissava of Harispattu to kill the sons of the
king as well as their guardian the subking of Uva. Discovering the treacherous plot of Herat
Dissava the king had him immediately executed as an example to others. As a sequel to this
execution there broke out a revolt in the Harispattu which the king easily put down.]

[THE, ARRIVAL OF THE DANES:]

[In persuance of the treaty entered into with the Dutch, King Senarati.ia sent De
Bosehouwer to Holland asking for help from the Dutch Government to drive the Portuguese
out of Ceylon. But the Government of the Netherlands did]

[not wish to enter into a promise with him. Now, De Boseliouwer approached Christian IV,
King of Denmark, and asked him for help, which he agreed to give. The Danish king
despatched a squadron of five ships under the Adi-niral Ove Giedde who arrived in Ceylon
in the 16th year of the reign of King Senaratna.]

[De Bosehouwar met with his death in the course of his return journey. Although the king
was highly pleased at the arrival of the Danish ships he was. unable to agree with the
proposals of Admiral Ove Giedde. The disappointed Admiral seized the valuable]

[things in the two ships of De Boseliouwer and returned to his native country.]

[After this event the Portuguese erected a number of forts in various parts of the country.
The Iiing observing their aggressive activities began to collect an army to pub down the
enemy. Several inf lueritial Mudal iyars of the Low Country secret] y worked in favour of
the king. Constantine de Sa, the Portuguese Captain General of Colombo, who heard of the
warlike preparations of the Sinhalese king marched with a large army and devastated the
Central Province. As the Icing was unprepared at this i-noment he fled to the hilly district
of Uva. The Porffiguese General returned from Kandy and was reni@gining at Malwana
when he received an express order from the Governor Genertl at Goa requesting him to
subjugate the Island of Geylon as early as possible. This order also blamed him for delaying
military measures. He started with an army of 21,500 men, both Portuguese and Sinhalese,
and plundered the town of Badulla. The General advanced ,i little further and was resting
on the top of a hill when thousands of Sinhalese soldiers of the king's forces broke in from
various direebions. Several of the.Sinhalese Mudaliyars immediately went over to the king's
side. As soon as the battle started Mudaliyar Don Cosma Wijayasekhara out off the head of
a Portuguese soldier, fixed it on the point of a spear and hold it aloft for everyone to see. It
was done as a mark of allegiance to the King of Kandy. All the Sinhalese soldiers except 150
joined the Sinhalese king. Throughout this historic battle the king's own son Prince
Rajgsinha, stood in the middle of the field and commanded the Sinh,%]ese army. In this
great battle which was fought in the field of Randeniwela in Wellawaya of 'the Uva District
the entire Portugue.@e army including General Constantine de Sa was massacred by the
Sibhalese.]

[Prince Rajasinba captured a number of Portuguese forts and laying seige to Colombo
started to attack the city. The Governor General of Goa who learnt of the death of
Constantine de Sa, immediately despatched reinforcements from Goa and Cochin. Being
repelled by these forces the Sinhate@ were forced to retreat. Subsequently, the Sinbeilese and
Portuguese entered into a treaty of peace. This state of peace achieved in the reign of king
Senaratna continued to exist up to the early years of the reign of his son Rajasinba II.
During this time an elephant gifted to a Portuguese merchant by the king of Kandy was
forcibly Fidized by Diogo de Malho, the Captain General of Colombo. While the king was
highly annoyed at this act of effrontery. Diogo de Mellio who thought that the king was
very fond of horses, sent a pair of stallions to the city of Kandy for sale. The king ordered
the two horses to be seized in return for the lost elephant. He sent a message to Colombo
declaring that he would release the two horses as soon as the elephant was restored. Diogo
de Melho on receiving this information marched with an army of 28,700 men and reag@,hed
the outskirts of K,,xndy. Prince Vijayapala, the sub-ruler of the Matale District collected a
force of 10,000 men and advanced towards Kandy to assist the king. When the Portuguese
army reached the Balatie Pass, Rajasinba sent a message to Diogo de Melho, through a
Christian clergyman, asking him to return forthwith as it was highly improper on his part
to embark upon a war so disastrous to thousands of innocent people, na(3rely on accounr,
of a private matter. The proud Governor did not hesitate to enter the city. He found the
capital entirely deserted. Themoriarch issuedorderstokilltheenemy without allowing any one
of them to escape. The Portuguese set fire to the city and went back. On their way they
were surrounded and attacked on all sides by the Sinhalese. The Portuguese Governor sued
for peace. The monarch determined to punish him severely for his insolence and refused to
accede to his reques@.. The entire Portuguese army including Diogo de Melho was
slaughtered with the exception of only 38 man who escaped.]

[The king realised that there would be no permanent peace as long as the presence of the
Portuguese continued in this island. He communicated with the Dutch Governor at Batavia
in order to drive the Portuguese out. Ambissidors from Batavia arrived at the Kandv-an
Court and a Treaty was concluded. The conditions of this Treaty were that a Dutch force to
be despatched to Ceylon the king to bear all the expenses for the military operations; the
Dutch to be free to carry on their trade in this country ; other European powers to be not
allowed to carry on trade in Ceylon and the Roman Catholic ministers to be expelled from
the Island.]

[According to the stipulations of this Treaty, General Wester. weld arrived in Ceylon
accompanied by an army in the fifth year of the king's reign and book possession of the
forts of Batticaloa, Negombo, Galle and rdatara. Two years after this event there]

[xxiii]

[prevailed 9, temporary peace between the Portuguese and the Dutch In the twenty-second
year of the king's reign the combined forces of the Sinhalese and the Dutch beseiged the
Fort of Colot-nbo and started to attack the city by land and sea. After a continuous seige of
seven months the Fort of Colombo was taken. The Hollanders did not transfer the captured
forts to the king of Kandy as expressly stated in the clauses of the Treaty. Therefore the king
not only withheld giving assistance to the%Hollanders, but also evinced undisguised favour
towards the Portuguese. Two years after this incident, fell the Fort of Jaffna, the last of the
Portuguese strongholds. Thus ended the Portuguese power that prevailed in this country for
a space of 150 years.]

[In the 25th year of this king's reign the English vessel in which Robert Knox and his father
sailed was disabled at sea and had to call at the harbour of Kottiar. On hearing of the arrival
of an English ship the Sinhalese ruler deputed a Dissava to take thein prisoners. The English
sailors sixteen in number, were captured and taken to Kandy. They were stationed
separately in ditrerent parts of the Central Province. Captain Kiiox, father of Robert Knox,
died through ,i virulent attack of malaria, The younger Knox remained in Ceylon as a state
prisoner for 20 years and ultimately manacfed to return to his native country by secretly
escaping from his captivity. The Hollanders tried their best to regain the lost friendship of
the king, but their efforts were without success.]

[THE ARRIVAL OF THE FRENCH.]

[In the 38th year of the reign of Rajasinha, Monsieur Do la Haye, Governor of the French
Colony of Madagasn, r arrived at the harbour of Trincomalee accompanied by seventeen
ships. He sent his envoys to Ktndy with various presents to the Sinhalese king. The
Kandyan monarch learning that the French wore in great hostility with the Hollanders
thought that he would be able to expel the Dutch with the aid of the Frenchmen and gave
them ,permission to erect a fortress. After the work was completed De 1 a Haye remained
in Ceylon for a short time and left for India on ,some urgent matter, authorising De I&
Narrole to proceed to Kandy as the accredited French Ambassador. Owing to a
misdemeanour of De la Narolle he was ordered to be imprisoned by the king.]

[xxiv]

[The Hollanders came and captured the French fortress, The aim of the French Governor
was thereby completely frustrated.]

[On the death of this king he was succeeded by his son Win-ialaclharmasury@t II, as king
of Kandy. As he proved to be a gentle and peace-loving monarch his reign was marked by
general tranquility. During his tiine the Hollanders improved their trade and political
power. The reign of his son Narendrasinha, was likewise a peaceful one. Though there was
general peace prevailing during the early part of the reign of Kirti Sri Rajasinba the
Hollanders strengthened the forts and persecuted the subjects of the king. The ruler burning
with grave indignation descended on the maritime districts and carried on a severe
campaign against the Dutch. This led to the continual hostility between the two nations. In
the 16th year of this inonarch's reign the Hollanders invaded the city of Kandy with an
army of 18,000 men and sat fire to the valuable books and magnificent buildings in the city.
They remained in Kandy for nine months, but being unable to resist the severe onslaughts
of the Sinhalese, they were forced to retreat to the maritime capital. Van Eck, the Dutch
Governor despatched a powerful force of his men to the Central Provine.3 which they
subjected to severe devastation. Subsequently, Governor EaIck entered into a Treaty with the
king and refrained from further wars with the Kandyans.]

[In the 16bb year of Kirti Sri Rajasinha's reign the British Governor of the.\ladras Presidency
deputed Mr. Pybus to thekingof Kandy intimating that the East India Company was
prepared to assist the king in his war against the Hollanders. The monarch was exceedingly
pleased and he entered into a Treaty with Mr. Pybus. In spite of this agreement the
Governor of Madras failed to carry out the obligations of the Treaty. Now, in the second
year of his successor Sri Rajadhirajasinha, Lord Macartney, Governor of Madras, despatched
a naval force under Admiral Hughes and a land force under General Heel.-or Monroe to
capture the Dutch forts in the Island of Ceylon. They idimediately took possession of the
Fort of Trincomalee. Not long afterwards, Mr. Boyd arrived in Kandy and solicited the king
to give up his displeasure at their neglect to carry out the terms of the Treaty during the
previous reign. He entreated the king to give them]

[xxv]
[assistance in the campaign against the Hollanders, or, if the king was not prepared to do
so, he requested the Council of Ministers to remain friendly towards the English. As the
Englishmen had not adhered to the previous promises. the Sinlialese ministers expressed
their, unwillingness to accede to his request. The mission of Mr, Boyd thus ended in utter
failure. General Hughes returned to India leaving his men in the Fort of Trincomalea.
During this interval the French Admiral Suffren attacked the English garrison and captured
the fortress. On his return from India, Admiral Hughes found to his great surprise that the
French colours ware flying over the Fort of Triticomalee. The campaign of the English in
Geylon thus ended without success.]

[Trincomalee was again captured by the Hollanders. The Englishmen resolved once more to
conquer the districts that remained under the Dutch Government. In the 16th year of the
reign of the king of Kandy, Lord Hobart, Governor of Madras despatched an army under
Colonel Stuart, to Ceylon who beseiged the Fort of Trincomalee. After a sturdy resistance of
three weeks, the Dutch had to surrender, and the Fort was capitulated to the English.
Subsequent to the occupation of the Fort of Negombo, the English laid seige to the city of
Colombo which was capitulated without any kind of resistance. John Angelbeek, the Dutch
Governor of Colombo, eventually signed a Peace @aty ceding the Forts of Kalutara, Galle,
Matara etc., to the English. The Dutch power in CQylon thus terminated in the 16th year of
the king of Kandy.]

[Since the passing of the maritime provinces into the hands of the East India Company, they
were again transferred to the British]

[Crown in the 18th year of the king of Kandy reign. The Honourable Frederic North arrived
as Governor of the Maritime Provinces. After the death of the sovereign, Prince Kannasamy
came to the throne under the title of Sri Wickrama Rajasinha, with the common consent of
all the citizens and the approval of the Chief Adigar Pilitna Talawwa, in the year 2341 B. E.
The Prime Minister Pilim@ Talawwa himself secretly aimed at usurping the throne. Not long
afterwards, the Chief Adigar Pili@a Talawwa arrested and imprisoned all those who
advanced any claims to the Sinhalese crown. Arawwawala, the Second Adigar was
assassinated by hirelings. Muttusamy, the claimant to the throne fled to the English]

[xxvi]

[at Col,-)inbo. The Chief Adigar with the view of usurping the kingdom conferred secretly
with Governor North, in order to enlist his assistance. There were frequent conferences with
Mr. Boyd who was Acting Chief Secretary. Pilima Talawwa informed the Governor and Mr.
Boyd that he disliked the Nayakkars, and that the Sinhalese too in general did not like the
Ma)abars. He explaind that if the English assisted him to depose the king and put him to
death, in order that he himself iniglib ascend the throne and establish a new royal line at
Kandy, lie would be certainly prepared to enter into a Treaty favourable to Llie British
and'also would continue as a ruler under the protection of the British Government. The
English gave their approval to all the other proposals except the decision to kill the
naonareb, and suggested] to Pitima Talawwa that the king should be deposed and kept in
confinement paying him only an annual pension. To this view Pilima Talawwa agreed.]

[It was the intention of the English to take possession of the Kandyati kingdom with the
assistance of Piliina Talawwa. The aim of Pilima Talawwawas to get rid of the king with the
help of the British and then to drive the English out of Ceylon after himself coming to the
throne. The two parties decided to send an envoy to the ruler inviting him to meet the
English for the purpose of ne,,,otiatitig a Treaty. Iii the ninth year of the king's reign General
Macdowall started for the Kandyan capital accompanied by a force of men. But the
Sinhalese troops did not allow them to proceed beyond Ruwatiwella. Pilima Talawwa
received General llacdowall and introduced him to the king. The monarch was unaware of
the conspiracy that existed between Pilirna Talawwa and the English. But he was not in a
position to agree with their proposals, The English were looking for a suitable opportunity,
to approach the king once more. Pilima Talawwa thought that lie would be able to put up
the English against the king and to enter into a Treaty with them by usurping regal power
for himself after putting the king to death. In' the Ilth year of Sri Wikraraa Raiasinha, Pilima
Talawwa instigated the king's men to plunder the arecanuts of the Moor traders from the
Low-country, who were subjects of the British Government. Although the Governor of
Colombo demanded the King of Kandy several times to pay adequate compensation for the
Moors, it was without effect. It is evident that the king was not cognisant of what had taken
place.]

[xxvii]

[WAR WITH THE ENGLISH.]

[As the above dispute was not amicably settled, the English declared war against the
Sinhalese. In the twelfth year of SriWikrama ltaj,,tsinha's reign General Macdowall left
Colombo with a force of 3,000 men, while Mr. Barbut started with another force from
Trincomalec. When they entered the city there was no one in the Kandyan capital. On that
occasion Governor North invited Prince @uttusamy to Kandy and crowned him King. The
English Governor immediately entered into a Treaty with the new king which was more
favourable to the English. Pilima Talawwa who was deeply annoyed at this development
determined to destroy the British power. In the meanwhile the Sinhalesq began to attack the
English at night. Later g conference took place between the Second Adigar Meegastenne and
General Maudowall as mentioned in a despatch from Pilima Talawwa to the British
Governor. They decided that the king should be captured and delivered to the English, that
Pilima TalawwiL should be appointed king under the title of Utum Kumara, that
Mutbusamy should be deported to Jadna with an annuity for his upkeep, and that the war
should be immediately ceased after transferring the Fort Macdowal, the Road to Trincomalee
and the District of Seven Korales to the British. Relying on this mutual agreement General
Macdowall stationed Mr. Barbut and his men at Kandy and returned to Colombo. At this
time Pilima Talawwa sent a communication to Governor North intimating his desire to see
him. Pilima Talawwa was met in conference by the Governor at Dambadeniya. He
confirmed the Treaty previously negotiated with General Macdowall. As Mr. Barbut arrived
with his men at Dambadeniya on this occasion Pilima Talawwa missed the opportunity of
taking Governor North prisoner, accordi g to the secret plan laid by him.]

[At the 'death of Mr. Barbut, the English force stationed at Kandy fell under the command
of Major David. ' At this time the Sinhalese had occupied the forts of Girihagama and
Galagedara that belonged to the English, and started to attack the British force at Kandy. As
the British wore greatly weakened Major Davie signified his desire to surrender by the
hoisting of a white flag. The war did immediately cease. Major Davie conferred with Pilima
Talawwa and left for Colombo accompanied by his men and]

[xxviii]

[Prince Muttusamy. He had to shop near the ford of Watapuluwa being unable to cross the
Mahaveligauga as the river. was in flood.]

[On the following day the king sent his men intimating Major Davie that he was not
responsible for the agreement and that Muttusamy. should be delivered to him forthwith.
As Major Davie was not in a position to refuse this demand he surrendered Muttusamy,
who was executed immediately after he was produced before the king. All the members of
the English force were thrown down the precipice of a rock and killed except the three
officers including Major Davie. However, a single soldier in the person of Corporal Barlisley
escaped his death and was able to reach the Fort Macdowal to relate the dreadful fate of his
comrades.Captain Madge who was in charge of the fort abandoned the fortress and hastily,
marched to Trincomalee with his men. Captaiii Grount who was in command at the fort of
Dambadeniya left his position and reached Colombo. Thus the claims of the English to the
Kandyan Provinces came to a complete end.]

[Encouraged by this great victory the Kandyans determined to expel the English out of
Ceylon and marched towards the Western Province. TI2e king himself proceeded in person
with the Sinhalese army. A furious battle took place near the Fo'rt of Hanwella, here the
Sinhalese were severely attacked by the English force. The monarch and his men had to flee
in disorder. The dieappointed ruler executed Leuke Dissava and the Chief Secretary
Palipaiia on a charge of remaining indifferent without leading the soldiers during the battle.
The young Molligoda who met the king on his solitary flight treated him wit@i great
respect. After this incident the ruler became favourably disposed towards Afolligoda and
appointed him to a higher.office.]

[Froderic North was succeeded by Sir Thowas Maitland as Governor of the Maritime
Provinces in the year 2348 B. B. At this time there was no serious friction between the
Sinhalese and the English. Adigar Meegastenne died in the 17th year of the king's reign. In
his place was appointed Rhalapola, the nephew of Pilima Talawwa. The Fol-ir Korales were
divided between him and Molligoda Nilame. The residents of the district rose in revolt
against this new measure. Pilima Talawwa put down the rising after persuading the king to
allow him and his nephew Ratwatte Dissava to have the Seven Korales. The ruler]

[xxix]

[came to the conclusion that the revolt was engineered by the Chief Adigar. On account of
this fact the dissatisfaction that was working in his mind was greatly enhanced. After ',-he
regime of Sir Thomas Maitland, Major General Wilson arrived as Governor. His relations
with the king were not at all strained.]

[When the king's suspicions of Pilima Talawwa grew in extent, the ruler convened the
Council of Ministers and disclosed the treacherous deeds of the Chief Adigar. The Ministers
declared that Pilima Talawwa was guilty. The monarch divested him of his official position
and bade him return to his native village,. Subsequently, Pilima Talawwa plottedi to slay his
erstwhile king. The ruler having discovered his conspiracy arrested the ringleaders, tried
them before a tribunal and had them all executed including Pilima Talawwa and Ratwatte
Dissava. Though the king had his own suspicions of Ehelapola, yet in order-to win the
allegiance of all his subjects, he appointed Eholapola to the office of Prime Minister.
Consequently, Molligoda rose to the rank of Second Adigar.]

[In the 21st year of the reign of Sri Wickrama Rajasinha ' Sir Robert Brownrigg arrived in
Ceylon as Governor of the Maritime Provinces. At this time, the ruler gave orders to his
suspected ministers to resort to their respective provinces and to improve agriculture.
Eholapola who departed to Sabaragamuwa began to carry on a surreptitious correspondence
with Governor Brownrigg in contravention of the orders from the king. IEIE also raised an
army at Sabaragamuwa against his own sovereign. The @onarch having learnt of these
hostile activities deprived Eholapola of all his offices and appointed Molligoda to the office
of Chief Adigar. The latter was deputed to Sabaragainuwa to suppress Ehelapola's men. On
the arrival of Molligoda Adigar, Ehelapola fled to Colombo. The irated ruler in order to
revenge the intriguing traitor, brutally executed the children, wife and relations of
Ehelapola,. Now the Governor Brownrigg found that it was a very favourable opportunity
for him to conquer the Kandyan Provinces and commenced to make warlike preparations.
Eholapola gave him all the necessary information regarding the military strength and war
strategy of the Kandyans. In the meanwhile Mr, John D'Oyly was endeavouring to win the
good-will of Molligoda. At this time the residents of the Three Korales plundered the goods
of the Moor merchants from the Low]

[xxx]

[Country, who were subjects of the British Government,on theo,?,teritatious pretext that they
were spies sent by the English. The king ordered them to be mutilated and to set them free.
Some of the Moors succumbed on the way while the rest were able to riach Colombo to
acquaint the Governor with the severe tortures they were subjected to. This particular
incident was instrumental in expediting the long-awaited war. In the 24th year of the kiiig's
reign Governor Brownril,g dispatched the.English army into the Kandyan territory from
eight different directions atid declared war against the king of Kandy. In his declaration of
war it was proclaimed that the English were taking this extreme measure in order to save
the Kandyan population from the yoke of a heartless tyrant, and that it was not at all a war
directed against the Kandyan people as a whole, but only a friendly step deliberately taken,
out of sympathy and consideration for the poor Kandyans. Owing to these reasons the
majority of the Sinhalese did not offer any resistance to the English. infolligoda himself
remained quiescent at their attitude The unfortunate monarch having discovered that the
English bad reached his capital, and that many of the Kandyan officials had joined the
English against him, fled ii-nmediately froi-n the city. The king was captured in the
residence of Udupitiya Aratchi of Gallchewatt& under the personal instructions of
Ehelapola. Consequently the glorious Sinhalese kingdoi-n that had been existing continually
for a long space of over 2,300 years, was f


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